Magyar
A Pannon bennszülött tartós szegfű védelme

Conservation

Threatening factors

Why do we need to protect it?

 The whole population of this species is living in Hungary, in the Duna-Tisza interfluve area. The number of the presently known stands is less than 10, many of them can be characterised by poor habitat quality for Dianthus diutinus. The number of the individuals is slightly decreasing, therefore concrete conservational efforts should needed in order to avoid the possible extinction of Dianthus diutinus.  

Since its habitats have been fragmented in the past 50 years mainly because of forestry activity, the main goal of the project is to create such a habitat network with the help of the enlargement and unification of the present habitats, which won’t be influenced by forestry activity at all or only at a minimal level on the three most important habitats of the Dianthus diutinus.

 

Decline of habitat

 The breakdown of the former well extended (as it is mentioned in different former publications) stand was certainly caused by the common effect of damaging facts like forest plantation on its natural habitat manifested in habitat lost, and the former intensive grazing on most of the whole area.

The large scale afforestation of wind-blown sand areas started from 1947 on and so started the afforestation of sand dunes which were not suitable for agricultural production.  In the past 50 years ten thousands of hectares declared „unvaluable” but harbouring valuable natural vegetation were forested. On the driest part pine plantations have taken away the greatest areas from sand dunes, since an order issued by the Ministers Council has decreed the forestry to afforest moving sand dunes. The afforestation has continued even after the preset aim was reached (fixing and possibly utilising sand) and thus many sand hill areas withvaluable vegetation are bound to fall victim to this.

70 % of the total population can be found in the alien forest plantations (pine): between the tree lines, at the roadside of the forestry roads, in the small grassland patches (maximum 1 hectare) between the forested area. Without habitat restorations the shading of the pine trees and the clear cutting of the forests can be fatal for the major part of the known populations.

The gradual decline of the populations size risks the disappearing and extinction of this endemic plant species.

 Declining habitat quality

 - Grazing

The common management of the sand dune area was the sheep grazing. The degradation level of the sand grassland vegetation depends on the level of grazing. As a result of the (over) grazing, the numbers of a dicotyledonous species are less and less. The grazing mainly focuses on large open areas, between the forest plantations not so important, doe to the difficult access of the area.

 It is recorded that sheep is grazing Dianthus diutinus as well. The grazing lowers the surface of the leaves, he result could be the lack of the restored nutrient. It leads to the extinction of the individuals. Consuming of the flowers reduces the number of the seeds.

- Spreading of invasive species

One of the greatest threats to the perennial sand grassland is the spread of non-native, alien (American, Asian), aggressive invasive plants, especially the Asclepias syriaca.  Usually it starts its spreading in degraded areas. It often constitutes continuous 10-hectare stands in abandoned arable fields, vineyards, young plantations, and even in slightly degraded semi-natural sand grasslands. Its eradication is theoretically possible by mowing three times a year, but it is very work-demanding. Using machinery for mowing is harmful for the vegetation of the soft sandy habitat, therefore cutting by hand combined by chemical treatment is the only acceptable method.

- Fast spred of invasive, non-indigenous shrub and tree species: Robinia pseudo-acacia, Ailanthus altissima, Prunus serotina

The spreading of Robinia pseudoacacia and Ailanthius altissima is dangerous because it transforms the habitat underneath itself and grasslands become weedly, additionally they occupy the recent and potential habitat of Dianthus diutinus. The liquidation of their stands is hindered by the fact that this species regenerates from offshoots. Chemical treatment is nearly the only way to control the spread.

Lack of information

 Due to the rarity of this species, it is known only by the botanists, and scientist. Therefore it is very difficult to save the plant from the unwanted demolition.

 
Kiskunsági Nemzeti Park Duna-Ipoly Nemzeti Park Szegedi Tudományegyetem Kiskunmajsa Környezetvédelmi és Vízügyi Minisztérium